State and Society
In Contemporary Iraq
An Analytic Study
In Sociology of Political Institution in Iraq (1921 – 2003)
This research is an approach to the study of the relationship between state and society, which considers a complicated issue confronting researchers in the field of sociology of politic, because it extends through the time and space. Accordingly, the present research is an attempt to trace this relation, by studying of what politic institution represents in human society in general, and with in the limits of the concept of modern state in Iraq in particular.
As the concept of the state represents the topic, such of this research, deals with its essence, that means arrival at the purpose of the politic institution as one of important supports that build the society at anywhere and anytime. The researcher see the state as a basic concept which is not clear enough, and use commonly in the society, without aware what is it?. Especially if we realize that each decision or political act relate to this concept in a way or another. So the researcher worked hard within contemporary Iraq history limit to clear the ambiguity of this concept, which was not academically studies before (especially in sociology) that proportionate with its importance to the national and international levels.
The researcher summarize the research's goals by two aims: acquaintance with the reciprocity between the state and the society, that is mean relationship of the political institution with the social reality in general. And acquaintance with the political institution sociology generally, and the state specifically in the society in Iraq, during the period between (1921) and (2003). The researcher used the functional structure as a theoretical approach guides his research and orientates it, after he discussed selectively and precisely, in detailed chapter, the political thought across the history, then the most important theoretical approaches in political sociology, adopting (taking up) one hypothesis to analyze the political system in Iraq according to (functional/structural) analysis or which so called, in scientific term, system theory. After that the researcher begun sociological analyze relationship between political institution represented by the state and society in Iraq across history, arrival the beginnings of the modern state, started by discovery attempting of the authority formation and explain its origin (birth). Then he described totally, society structures in Iraq, stated this by reading the society according to historical dimension of its geography, then the most important and active reference groups in its individuals, also its economical companies and the active institutions that belong to it. Then the researcher began to read the history of formation of the state in Iraq. The emergence of the modern Iraqi state in twenties of the twentieth century was not original and spontaneous action, coming from heart of the society, but it came from its debris and face it later, from here increased its spread snarls in so called society mosaic in its ethnic, sectarian, and religious formation. The British mandate and the royal govern were the compound product of the huge weak structure of the society in Iraq in the beginnings of the first quarter of twentieth century. It is reality found its reflection in the form and the content of modern state in Iraq. Then the researcher explained the most important state authorities that agreed on them in its literary, also show its most important jurisdictions and functions. And in progress stage, the researcher tried to find out in state and society argumentative holes to out with mechanism to dissociate reciprocity relationship problematic between them.
The researcher achieved his research’s aims, and affirms the truth of his hypothesis, and reached at the following findings:
The cultural system Still represented by the belongingness (of families, tribes, and quarter) and the loyalties (of ethnics, sectarian, and the religious), is the one that moving the political action in Iraqi society. In contrast to Parsons in his hypothesis, which indicate that the economic system is play the role in forming the action and building it.
Illegality of forming the state. The 1est Faisal belong to non Iraqi origins, (in order that, the original homeland of Faisal is Al-Hijaz), was owe to British colonialism due to the birth of deceased state is done by the British hands after the world war I.
The removing and marginating remained the first obsession for the modern state in Iraq from its forming (82) years ago, across the (37) years of royal period (reign) age in Iraq, the margination remained to the great part of Iraqi society which is the Shiite, the Iraqi communist party, which represent the greatest Iraqi political moves, had its share of removing. But this removing and marginating became share point between most Iraqi people in most its structures in republican period (reign).
In modern state in Iraq the merge between the state and the authority has been accomplished, since established (82) years ago. The state merged with ruler authority, although of the sequences of the ruler authority continuously. And this result in state absence problem which deviate the state to the authority side, and by the fall down of the authority, the state fall down as a structure, being and institution.
The modern state in Iraq missed since its forming (82) years ago to state project in its total national and structural depth, as it has not been working to reproduced the Iraqi entity (identity) in relation to its modern reality after the coming of the Iraq state in (1921), but went to adoption of disaster structural projects like the radical ethnic and the execrable sectarian.
Title of Thesis: State and Society In Contemporary Iraq
An Analytic Study In Sociology of Political Institution in Iraq (1921 – 2003)
By : Dr. Ali Witwit
Chair of Sociology Dep.
Collge of Arts - University of Qadissiya